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Byzantine liturgy

CBM understands Byzantine liturgy conceptually in two ways. First, in a general sense, 'Byzantine liturgy' signifies the whole array of liturgical traditions that existed within the Byzantine world, from the 4th century AD onwards. Second, in a particular sense, 'Byzantine rite' denotes that liturgical tradition which out of the first millennium liturgical plurality in the Byzantine world came out as the dominating and, finally, single rite. What we call today Byzantine rite is the result of the synthesis between the liturgy of Constantinople (euchologion, evangelion (lectionary), calendar) and the daily office of Jerusalem (horologion, hymnody, psalter). This synthesis was accomplished no later than the eighth century. From that time the Byzantine rite was practiced by most of Byzantine monasticism and an increasing number of non-monastic churches, in the end becoming the sole liturgy of the Orthodox world. The time of this liturgical uniformisation varied in different regions inside and outside the Byzantine Empire; in the Byzantine empire the Byzantine rite had become dominant by the thirteenth century. In many cases only a partial replacement of the local liturgy was required for this uniformisation; thus, in regions originally observing the Constantinopolitan rite the Constantinopolitan part of the Byzantine liturgical synthesis remained in unbroken use from Late Antiquity.