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Bibliography: Byzantine Codicology, Codicography & Catalography

Introductory note

The bibliographical list below is far from exhaustive. Only a select number of specialised studies on Byzantine codicology & palaeography have been included, plus a small although representative number of contributions which point to new branches of this auxiliary discipline: codicography, that is, research on the principles of codex description, and catalography [see Approach: Quotes 1-10], the historical and methodological study of catalogues of manuscripts and the setting up of new catalogue types which concord with the principles set out on the codico-liturgical approach. For updated and extensive bibliographies, see the contributions of Canart and others mentioned in the IRHT Pinakes rubric ‘Liens‘.

Website reference: http://pinakes.irht.cnrs.fr/pages/show?id_cmspage=8.

Further: bibliographical sections in the periodicals Scriptorium and Byzantinische Zeitschrift.

One should keep in mind that experts of Byzantine codicology in all universities in the world are normally trained in Classical Philology or Medieval Art Studies in the case of Byzantine illuminated manuscript research, with a longstanding philological tradition and a highly developed methodology and technological skills. Catalogues of manuscripts (see website Sources: Catalogues of MSS according to Libraries & Holdings, provided on this website), are also the product of what could be called ‘classical approach‘ to codicology, the Palaeographia Graeca, as it was coined by Montfaucon. For a quick consult of this monument of learning, see the digitised edition: http://en.calameo.com/read/0001070443b15b4eb3655.

Cf. A. Bravo GarcíaI. Pérez Martín (eds.),The Legacy of Bernard de Montfaucon: Three Hundred Years of Study on Greek Handwriting (Proceedings of the Seventh International Colloquium of Greek Palaeography, Madrid-Salamanca, 15-20 September 2008), Turnhout, 2008.

The classical philological approach to Byzantine codicology dominated the discipline until recently, although the bulk of manuscripts are of ecclesial-liturgical origin [see critical comments by E. Granstrem, ‘Greek Palaeography in Russia’, in Bulletin no 17 of the Institute of Classical Studies (1970), pp. 126-127 [see Quote 8] and ‘Zur byzantinischen Minuskel’, (1980), pp. 76-78], which implies different demands for scientific research and catalogue making. From a research historical point of view a process took place which can be indicated as the de-liturgification of books that originated in worship, or as the textualisation of liturgical content. The simple fact is that philologists tend to investigate not only the ‘classical texts‘ found in Byzantine manuscripts (which incorporate pieces of classical literature), but also approach biblical and liturgical corpora in the same manner as literary works and text carriers.

It should also be noted that Byzantine codicology encompasses different groups of manuscripts and catalographers of local library collections are expected to possess a wide range of ‘interdisciplinary‘ capabilities. In cataloguing practice this means that limitations have been set right from the start, since the work was (and is) too big for one, two or even more persons, if one only thinks of the enormous codex treasures in the monastery libraries of Mount Athos and other large, as yet ‘unexplored libraries‘ in the world. The result has been the creation of many short catalogues (inventory lists, check lists, summary catalogues, inventaire sommaire, kurzgefasste Liste, etc.) in which ‘the text‘ is leading and the codex was approached simply as a ‘vehicle of texts‘ and not as an organic whole of intellectual content, which originated and was used in liturgical contexts. Codices have specific functions and significance for the reader and audience and, not to forget, religious user values. The making of catalogues in Latin and other western languages has also estranged Byzantine manuscripts from their original liturgical provenance.

For reasons of high importance for present and upcoming CBM research and catalogue work, we have included under the tab Sources some additional Bibliographical references:

  • On Codex Functional Ornamentation and Manuscript Iconography.
  • On Byzantine Liturgical Chant which is partly represented in codices (ecphonetic notation).
  • On Byzantine chronology, absence and presence in codices.
  • On Provenance research of Byzantine codices.

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Select Bibliography of Byzantine Codicology, Codicography, Catalography

P. Andrist, P. Canart, M. Maniaci (eds.), La syntaxe du codex. Essai de codicologie structural, (Bibliologia, vol. 34), Turnhout, 2013.

K. Athanasioudes (Archimandrite, Alholy Sepulchre in Jerusalem), ‘Ὑπόμνημα ἱστορικὸν περὶ τῶν βιβλιοθηκῶν τοῦ Ὀρθοδόξου Καθολικοῦ Πατριαρχείου τῶν Ἱεροσολύμων (1874-1881)‘, in Ἱεροσολυμιτικὴ Βιβλιοθήκη, Tom. III, ed. by A. I. Papadopoulos-Kerameus, pp. 273-323.

Ang. M. Bandini, Catalogus codicum manuscriptorum bibliothecae Mediceae Laurentianae varia continens opera Graecorum patrum, vols. I-III, Florence: Typis Caesareis, 1764-1770.

A. Binggeli and M. Cassin, ‘Recenser la tradition manuscrite des textes grecs: du Greek Index Project à Pinakes’, in La descrizione dei manoscritti: esperienze a confronto, (studi e ricerche del Dipartimento di Filologia e Storia 1), by E. Crisci, M. Maniaci, P. Orsini (eds.), Cassino, 2010.

P. Canart, ‘La descrizione dei manoscritti greci: riflessioni di un catalogatore ‘tradizionalista‘, in La descrizione dei manoscritti: esperienze a confronto, (studi e ricerche del Dipartimento di Filologia e Storia 1), by E. Crisci, M. Maniaci, P. Orsini (eds.), Cassino, 2010, pp. 71-86 [Tav. 1-4].

[Royal Library’s Old catalogue] Catalogus Codicum Manuscriptorum Bibliothecae Regiae, T. I-III, Paris, 1739, 1740, 1744. [I. Oriental MSS, II. Greek MSS, III. Latin MSS]

E. Crisci, M. Maniaci, P. Orsini (eds.), La descrizione dei manoscritti: esperienze a confronto, (studi e ricerche del Dipartimento di Filologia e Storia 1), Cassino, 2010.

A. Dain, ‘Rapport sur la codicologie byzantine’, in Berichte zum XI. Internationaler Byzantinisten-Kongress (München, 1958), pp. 1-22 [and H. Hunger, ‘Korreferat zu A. Dain, Rapport sur la codicologie byzantine’, ibid, pp. 56-59].

A. Dain, Les manuscrits, Paris, 1949 [3rd edition, 1975].

R. Devreesse, Introduction à l’Étude des Manuscrits Grecs, Paris, 1954.

M. L. Dolezal, ‘Illuminating the liturgical word: text and image in a decorated lectionary (Mount Athos, Dionysiou Monastery, cod. 587), in Word & Image. A Journal of Verbal / Visual Enquiry, 12.1 (1996), pp. 23-60.

S. Dufrenne, ‘Rubricateurs et ornemanists dans les manuscrits écrits en minuscules bouletées’, in Paleografia e codicologia greca, (Atti del Il Colloquio internazionale, Berlin-Wolfenbüttel, 17-21. Oktober 1983), Ed. by D. Harlfinger and G. Prato, Alessandria, T. I-II, 1991, pp. 305-319.

A. Džurova, Byzantinische Miniaturen. Schätze der Buchmalerei vom 4. bis zum 19. Jahrhundert, Regensburg, 2002.

A. Ehrhard, Überlieferung und Bestand der hagiographischen und homiletischen Literatur der griechischen Kirche, von den Anfängen bis zum Ende des 16. Jahrhunderts, vols. I-III, Leipzig-Berlin, 1937-1952.

B. L Fonkič, ‘Griechische Kodikologie’, in Griechische Kodikologie und Textüberlieferung, ed. D. Harlfinger, Darmstadt, 1980, pp. 14-21.

D. Fraenkel, Verzeichnis der griechischen Handschriften des Alten Testaments von Alfred Rahlfs. Die Überlieferung bis zum VIII Jahrhundert, bd. 1, 1, (Septuaginta Supplement), Göttingen, 2004.

A. M. Franz, ‘Byzantine Illuminated Ornament. A Study in Chronology’, in The Art Bulletin, 16 (1934), pp. 43-76 [pl. I-XXV].

H. Y. Gamble, Books and Readers in the Early Church. A History of Early Christian Texts, New Haven and London, 1995.

V. Gardthausen, Sammlungen und Cataloge Griechischer Handschriften, Leipzig, 1903.

V. Gardthausen, Griechische Palaeographie, 2. Aufl., 2 vols., Leipzig, 1911-1913.

V. Gardthausen, Catalogus codicum Graecorum Sinaiticorum, Oxford, 1886.

P. Géhin (ed.), Lire le manuscrit medieval. Observer et decrier, Paris, 2007.

D. Gkinis, ’Κατάλογοι ἑλληνικῶν κωδίκων ἐν Ἑλλάδι καὶ Ἀνατολῇ’, in Ἐπετηρὶς Ἑταιρείας Βυζαντινῶν Σπουδῶν, 11 (1935), pp. 361-382.

E. E. Granstrem, ‘Zur byzantinischen Minuskel’, in Griechische Kodikologie und Textüberlieferung, ed. D. Harlfinger, Darmstadt, 1980, pp. 76-119.

E. E. Granstrem, ‘Greek Palaeography in Russia‘, in Bulletin no 17 of the Institute of Classical Studies, University of London (1970), pp. 124-135.

C. R. Gregory, Textkritik des Neuen Testamentes, 3 vols., Leipzig, 1900-1909.

J. P. Gumbert, ‘Codicological Units: towards a Terminology for the Stratigraphy of the non-homogeneous Codex’, in Il codice miscellaneo. Tipologie e funzioni. (Atti del covegno internazionale (Cassino, 14-17 maggio, 2003), by E. Crisci, O. Pecere (eds.), Cassino (= Segno e testo, 2 [2004], pp. 17-42.

J. P. Gumbert, ‘Codicologische eenheden – opzet voor een terminologie’, in Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, Mededelingen van de Afdeling Letterkunde, Nieuwe Reeks, Deel 67 no. 2, Amsterdam, 2004 [http://www.knaw.nl/publicaties/pdf/20031 102.pdf].

J. P. Gumbert, ‘C Catalogue and Codicology – Some Reader’s Notes’, in A Catalogue and its Users. A Symposium on the Uppsala C Collection of Medieval Manuscripts, by M. Hedlund (ed.), (Acta Bibliothecae R. Universitaties Upsaliensis 34), Uppsala, 1995, pp. 57-70.

J. P. Gumbert, Zur Kodikologie und Katalographie der zusammengesetzten Handschrift’, in La descrizione dei manoscritti: esperienze a confronto, (studi e ricerche del Dipartimento di Filologia e Storia 1), by E. Crisci, M. Maniaci, P. Orsini (eds.), Cassino, 2010, pp. 1-18.

J. P. Gumbert, ‘IIMM – A completely new Type of Manuscript Inventory’, in Gazette du livre medieval, 55 (2009), pp. 43-46.

J. P. Gumbert, ‘Sizes and Formats’, in Ancient and Medieval Book Materials and Techniques, ed. by M. Maniaci and P. F. Monafò, (Studi e Testi, 357-358), Città del Vaticano, pp. 227-263.

J. P. Gumbert, Illustrated Inventory of Medieval manuscripts in Latin script, (Inventaire illustré de manuscrits médiévaux, Illustriertes Inventar mittelalterlicher Manuscripte), 1 [Introduction] and 2 [Inventory], Leiden, 2009.

D. Harlfinger (ed.), Griechische Kodikologie und Textüberlieferung, Darmstadt, 1980.

D. Harlfinger and G. Prato (eds.), Paleografia e codicologia greca, (Atti del Il Colloquio internazionale, Berlin-Wolfenbüttel, 17-21. Oktober 1983), Alessandria, T. I-II, 1991.

H. Hunger, O. Kresten, C. Hannick, Katalog der griechischen Handschriften der österreichischen Nationalbibliothek, Codices theologici, 3 Bdn., Wien, 1976/1992.

I. Hutter, ‘Decorative systems in Byzantine manuscripts, the Scribe as Artist: Evidence from Manuscripts in Oxford’, in Word & Image. A Journal of Verbal / Visual Enquiry, 12.1 (1996), pp. 4-22.

I. Hutter, Corpus der Byzantinischen Miniaturenhandschriften, Band 1. Oxford Bodleian Library I, Stuttgart, 1977; Band 2. Oxford Bodleian Library II, Stuttgart, 1978; Band 3.1 Text. Oxford Bodleian Library III, Stuttgart, 1982; Band 3.2 Tafeln. Oxford Bodleian Library III, Stuttgart, 1982; Band 4.1-2. Oxford Christ Church, Stuttgart, 1993.

S. N. Kadas, Τὰ σημειώματα τῶν χειρογράφων τῆς Ἱερᾶς Μεγίστης Μονῆς Βατοπαιδίου, Hagion Oros, 2000.

G. Karo, and H. Lietzmann, ‘Catenarum Graecorum Catalogus’, in Nachrichten der Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, Philol. hist. Klasse, Göttingen, 1902, pp. 1-66; 299-350; 559-620.

J. Karayannopoulos, ‘Bericht über Paläographie, Kodikologie und Diplomatik im Rahmen der Byzantinistik’, in Actes du XIVe Congrès International des Études Byzantines (Bucarest, 6-12 septembre, 1971), ed. by M. Berza and E. Stănescu , Bucharest, 1976, III, pp. 13-21

M. Kouroupou et P. Géhin, Catalogue des manuscrits conservés dans la Bibliothèque du Patriarcat Œcuménique. Les manuscrits du monastère de la Panaghia de Chalki, Vol. I : notices descriptives. Vol. II : illustrations, Turnhout, 2008.

K. and S. Lake, Dated Greek Minuscule Manuscripts to the Year 1200, Vols. I-X, (Monumenta Palaeographica Vetera, First Series), t. I-X (t. XI: Index), Boston, 1934-1945.

E. Lamberz, Katalog der griechischen Handschriften des Athosklosters Vatopedi, Band 1. Codices 1-102, Thessaloniki: Patriarchal Institute for Patristic Studies, 2006.

S. P. Lampros, Catalogue of the Greek Manuscripts on Mount Athos. Κατάλογος τῶν ἐν ταῖς βιβλιοθήκαις τοῦ Ἁγίου Ὄρους ἑλληνικῶν κωδίκων, Τομ. 1-2, Cambridge, 1895-1900.

F. Masai, ’Paléographie et codicologie’, in Scriptorium, 4.2 (1950), pp. 279-293.

O. Mazal, The Keeper of Manuscripts, trans. by T. J. Wilson (in collaboration with M. McNamara), Turnhout, 1992.

B. M. Metzger, Manuscripts of the Greek Bible. An Introduction to Greek Palaeography, New York and Oxford, 1981.

E. Mioni, Catalogo di manuscitti greci esistenti nelle biblioteche italiane, (Indice et cataloghi; 20), vols. I-II, Rome, 1965.

B. de Montfaucon, Bibliotheca bibliothecarum manuscriptorum nova, 2 vols., Paris, 1739. [Hildesheim, 1982]

B. de Montfaucon, Palaeographia graeca, sive de ortu et progressu litterarum graecorum et de variis omnium saeculorum Scriptionis Graecae generibus, Parisiis, 1708. [repr. 1982]

D. Muzerelle, ‘Colophons et souscriptions. Mentions de date, d’origine ou de copiste‘, in P. Géhin (ed.), Lire le manuscrit medieval. Observer et decrier, Paris, 2007, pp. 157-175.

D. Nebbiai, ‘Pour le signalement du manuscript: cotes de bibliothèque’, in Lire le manuscrit medieval. Observer et decrier, ed. by P. Géhin, Paris, 2007, pp. 10-14.

H. Omont, Catalogue alphabétique des livres imprimés mis à la disposition des lecteurs dans la salle de travail, Département des manuscripts, Bibliothèque National: suivi de la liste des catalogues usuels du Département des manuscripts, Paris, 1933.

H. Omont, Inventaire sommaire des manuscrits grec de la Bibliothèque Nationale et des autres bibliothèques de Paris et des Départements, t. I-IV, Paris, 1886-1898.

H. Omont, Inventaire sommaire des manuscrits du Supplément grec de la Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, 1883. 

H. Omont, Catalogue des manuscrits grecs de Fontainebleau, Paris, 1889. [digitized by the Internet Archive 2013].

A. I. Papadopoulos-Kerameus, Ἱεροσολυμιτικὴ Βιβλιοθήκη ἤτοι κατάλογος τῶν ἐν ταῖς βιβλιοθήκαις τοῦ ἁγιωτάτου ἀποστολικοῦ τε καὶ καθολικοῦ ὀρθοδόξου πατριαρχικοῦ θρόνου τῶν Ἱεροσολύμων καὶ πάσης Παλαιστίνης ἀποκειμένων ἑλληνικῶν κωδίκων, 5 vols., St. Petersburg, 1891-1915 [Repr., Bruxelles, 1963].

G. R. Parpulov and others (ed.), ‘A Catalogue of the Greek Manuscripts at the Walters Art Museum and Essays in Honor of Gary Vikan’, in The Journal of the Walters Art Museum, Vol. 62, (2004), pp. 70-197. [http:/www.jstor.org/stable/20168630]

G. R. Parpulov, Towards a History of Byzantine Psalters, volume one, (Dissertation, Department of Art History, University of Chicago), Chicago, Illinois, 2004.

T. S. Pattie and S. McKendrick, The British Library. Summary Catalogue of Greek Manuscripts, Vol. I, London, 1999.

L. Perria, I Manoscritti Citati da Albert Ehrhard, Indice di: A. Ehrhard, Überlieferung und Bestand der hagiographischen und homiletischen Literatur der griechischen Kirche, I-III, Leipzig-Berlin, 1937-1952, Roma 1979.

G. Petherbridge, ‘Sewing structures and materials: a study in the examination and documentation of Byzantine and post-Byzantine bookbinding’, in Paleografia e codicologia greca, (Atti del Il Colloquio internazionale, Berlin-Wolfenbüttel, 17-21. Oktober 1983), ed. by D. Harlfinger and G. Prato, Alessandria, T. I-II, 1991, T.I, pp. 363-408.

D. Poirel, ‘Le contenu. Typologie des instruments: En grec’, in Lire le manuscrit medieval. Observer et decrier, ed. by P. Géhin, Paris, 2007, pp. 201-202, 204-206.

L. Politis, Ὁδηγὸς καταλόγου χειρογράφων (Γενικὸν Συμβούλιον Βιβλιοθηκῶν τῆς Ἑλλάδος 171), Athens, 1961.

A. Rahlfs, ‘Verzeichnis der griechischen Handschriften des Alten Testaments für das Septuaginta Unternehmen’, in Nachrichten der koeniglichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, Philolologisch Historische Klasse, (Beiheft), Berlin, 1914, pp. 1-443.

[M. Richard] J.-M. Olivier, Répertoire des Bibliothèques et des Catalogues de Manuscrits Grecs des Marcel Richard, troisième edition entièrement refondue, (Corpus Christianorum), Turnhout, 1995. [Richard/Olivier]

M. Richard, Répertoire des Bibliothèques et des Catalogues de Manuscrits Grec, Supplément I, (1958-1963), Paris, 1964.

M. Richard, Répertoire des Bibliothèques et des Catalogues de Manuscrits Grec, Paris, 19582.

M. Richard, Répertoire des Bibliothèques et des Catalogues de Manuscrits Grec, Paris, 1948.

C. H. Roberts and T. C. Skeat, The Birth of the Codex, London, 1983.

S. M. Royé, ‘Γενικὸς Ἀλφαβητικὸς Κατάλογος Κωδίκων καὶ Βιβλίων τῆς Ἱερᾶς Μονῆς Καρακάλλου. General Alphabetical Catalogue of Codices and Books of the Holy Monastery of Karakallou’, in Sacris Erudiri, 49 (2010), pp. 439-536.

S. M. Royé, ‘An Assessment of Byzantine Codex and Catalogue Research: Towards the Construction of a New Series of Catalogues of Byzantine Manuscripts’, in Sacris Erudiri 47 (2008), pp. 5-145.

S. M. Royé, The Inner Cohesion between the Bible and the Fathers in Byzantine Tradition. Towards a codico-liturgical approach to the Byzantine Manuscripts, Tilburg, 2007.

I. Sevčenko and C. Mango, Byzantine books and bookmen, with contrib. by Nigel G. Wilson and others , Washington, 1975.

H. von Soden, Die Schriften des Neuen Testaments in ihrer ältesten erreichbaren Textgestalt hergestellt auf Grund ihrer Textgeschichte, 2 vols, 2nd ed., Göttingen, 1911.

I. Spatharakis, Corpus of dated illuminated Greek manuscripts, 2 vols., (Byzantina Neerlandica, fasc. 8), 1981.

K. Spronk, G. Rouwhorst, S. Royé (eds.), A Catalogue of Byzantine Manuscripts in their Liturgical Context: Challenges and Perspectives, (Collected Papers resulting from the expert meeting of the Catalogue of Byzantine manuscripts programme held at the PThU in Kampen, the Netherlands on 6th to 7th November 2009), Brepols Publishers, Turnhout, 2013.

E. M. Thompson [Rev. transl. by Sp. P. Lampros], Ἐγχειρίδιον ἑλληνικῆς καὶ λατινικῆς παλαιογραφίας, Athens, 1903. [repr. Athens, 1973]

A. Tselikas, Δέκα αἰῶνες Ἑλληνικῆς Γραφῆς (9ος - 19ος αἰ.), Athens, 1977.

E. G. Turner, The Typology of the Early Codex, Pennsylvania, 1977.

E. G. Turner, (rev. P. J. Parsons), Greek manuscripts of the Ancient World, 2nd ed., London, 1987.

A. Weyl Carr, ‘The Production of Illuminated Manuscripts: a View from the late Twelfth Century’, in Paleografia e codicologia greca, (Atti del Il Colloquio internazionale, Berlin-Wolfenbüttel, 17-21. Oktober 1983), Ed. by D. Harlfinger and G. Prato, Alessandria, T. I-II, 1991, T.I, pp. 325-338.